Where Cartridges are Seen, Not Hidden! Where information is Shared Freely! Where Cartridges are Free for all to See! Where Cartridges are Seen, Not Hidden!

Welcome to FreeMyCollection.com! The whole premise of this site is to share my collection of antique guns and ammunition with the world. What fun is having a collection if others do not also get to enjoy it? Take a look around, read an article or two, view a few images and learn something new!

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The Pinfire Page
March 21, 2018

I created a small publication of my International Ammunition Association Journal columns on pinfire cartridges for the past 5 years if anyone would like a copy! I’ll do the next 5 years in 2023.

It’s $29.99 and can be purchased on Amazon by clicking here!

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Casimir Lefaucheux’s first pistol and the very first cartridge pistol!
March 14, 2018

First pinfire pistol by Casimir Lefaucheux

I have finally added the last specimen needed to now have an example of all three pistol designs by Casimir Lefaucheux.

On 16 Jun 1832 Casimir Lefaucheux filed for patent no 1832 in France for protection of his breechloading design that allowed for the barrel to drop down on a hinge. It was approved on 28 Jan 1833 and is basically the same format all double barrel shotguns still use to this day. It is probably one of the most important designs in the history of firearms development.

Image of drawing from 28 Jan 1833 patent

Later that year on 29 Dec 1832 he filed for an addendum to the patent that added some protections for some modifications. That addendum was approved on 13 Mar 1833 and describes the specification that this gun pictured follows. One of the main improvement in this the addendum was the “opening key” which was the lever under the barrel that allowed the breach to open.

Image of drawing from 13 Mar 1833 patent

At the time, he licensed this design to a few of the best gun manufactures (arquebusiers) in France who all made shotguns following this breechloading design. As an advertising measure he even printed their names on the pinfire shotshell that that he contracted with Jules Gévelot to make for them.

Image of Gévelot shotshells

'Unrolled' image of the names on the Gévelot shotshell

The forth addition to this same patent finally adds protection to the design of the pinfire cartridge; though based on the contract dates they were being made before it was filed on 08 Jan 1835 and approved on 31 Mar 1835.

Image of drawing from 31 Mar 1835 patent

This pinfire cartridge was the first fully self contained cartridge. Everything before this relied on multiple pieces, such as an external percussion cap being placed somewhere. This combined it all together.

For another 5 years or so there would be no pinfire pistol cartridges made or patented. This early pistol actually used shotshells that were cut down as shown in the picture above.

It is chambered for a 24g ball and a couple variations of these cut down shotshells are known to exist. They are incredibly rare. And that is the only known example of that full shotshell pictured.

So based on this info of this being the first cartridge and this pistol being the first gun made for it I give you the very first cartridge pistol!

Profile image of Casimir Lefauchuex pistol facing Left

Image of Top of Casimir Lefauchuex pistol

Image of Underneath of Casimir Lefauchuex pistol

Image of opened Casimir Lefauchuex pistol

Also, for a little more info, here is the example of this same design (but a double barrel version) from the Lefaucheux Family Archives.

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Bracelet made for carrying pinfire cartridges

Bracelet made for carrying pinfire cartridges

Here is a neat little pinfire carrying bracelet I picked up recently. It is all leather with a brass clasp and securely holds 13 cartridges!

Bracelet made for carrying pinfire cartridges

Bracelet made for carrying pinfire cartridges

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Norwegian M/64/98 Lefaucheux Pinfire Revolver with Military Cartridge Box
February 12, 2018

12mm Norwegian Lefaucheux Pinfire Revolver

This is an example of one of the scarce pinfire boxes made by Société Française des Munitions for the Norwegian military as well as one of the Norwegian military Lefaucheux pinfire revolvers.

In 1859 the Norwegian Navy ordered a handful of Lefaucheux Model 1854s for testing and then in 1864 purchased 1500 Lefaucheux model 1854 revolvers which were split amongst the Norwegian Army and Navy. Norway designated these revolvers as the Model M/1864.

12mm Norwegian pinfire with Lion mark

Norwegian M/64/98 pinfire RevolverNorwegian version of the Lefaucheux model 1854
In 1898 some of these revolvers which were still in service were modified to add the piece of metal on top to stiffen the frame. These modified revolvers were designated as the M/64/98 and is what is pictured here. Norway designated the revolver as 11mm which is why SFM marked the box as 11mm. The exact same cartridges were sold elsewhere as 12mm. The box contains 18 cartridges which was enough to reload the revolver 3 times.

12mm pinfire cartridge manufacturer by Société Française des Munitions for the Norwegian military

Norway also manufactured additional ball and blank load pinfire cartridges at their state-owned cartridge factories. An early Norwegian manual about how to manufacture pinfire cartridges indicates that they followed the French technical specifications for these.

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9mm Javelle Patent Pinfire Revolver Manufactured by Verney-Carron
May 6, 2017

9mm Javelle patent pinfire revolver

This is a 9mm Javelle patent pinfire revolver manufactured by Verney-Carron of St. Etienne, France somewhere around the late 1850s to early 1860s.

9mm Javelle patent pinfire revolver Breaking Mechanism

He designed this gun to allow easy removal of the cylinder. His intentions were that people could carry extra cylinders that were already loaded and quickly reload the revolver.

Javelle patent pinfire revolverJavelle patent pinfire revolver with gold inlays

Here is a scan of my copy of British Patent no. 1362 from 1861 which goes into details on the design for a later variation of Javelle’s revolver but is still very similar to the mechanism used in this example. This is specifically for his later revolver which shot his horizontal pinfire cartridges which were an early form of centerfire cartridges.

Javelle British Patent no. 1362 from 1861

Javelle British Patent no. 1362 from 1861Javelle British Patent no. 1362 from 1861Javelle British Patent no. 1362 from 1861Javelle British Patent no. 1362 from 1861Javelle British Patent no. 1362 from 1861

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The Very First Cartridge Revolver
August 10, 2016

Casimir Lefaucheux Pinfire Pepperbox

This is the earliest version of the pinfire pepperbox revolver manufactured by Casimir Lefaucheux around 1845-1846.

Lefaucheux “borrowed” the action from Guillaume Mariette of Liège, Belgium who made a percussion pepperbox a few years prior.

Casimir Lefaucheux Pinfire Pepperbox

Casimir Lefaucheux Pinfire PepperboxCasimir Lefaucheux Pinfire Pepperbox

Casimir’s patent modified it to make it breech-loading by adding in that middle piece and allowing the barrels to come off. He said he also added many safety features.

Casimir Lefaucheux Pinfire Pepperbox patent

Mariette and Lefaucheux argued in court a few times over this but Lefaucheux ended up changing his handle and frame style and action a little bit to both appease Mariette and add newer improvements.

It is chambered for a 50 bore (based on the old French livre, making it an 11.81mm caliber) cartridge that Jules Joseph Chaudun held a patent for. This is effectively a 12mm pinfire cartridge, and most later 12mm pinfire cartridges fit it in.

Early Chaudun pinfire cartridge and box

Chaudun seemingly hand-made these cartridges as they all seem to be slightly different. They exist in a round-ball load, the candle-flame bullet load as shown and a shot load.

One interesting thing to note is that if you notice the little lever above the trigger, behind the hammer; when you pull it down with your other thumb (which is not extremely easy) and pull the trigger it only rotates the barrel and does not move the hammer at all.

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Lefaucheux 7mm Double Action Pinfire
August 16, 2015

Lefaucheux Patent from 07 June 1858This is a double-action-only 7mm pinfire revolver made by Eugene Lefaucheux in Paris, France. It follows his patent from 07 June 1858.

On the barrel is inscribed:

DUMOULIN ARQer À ROUEN

Dumoulin was a gun maker (arquebusier; ARQer) and gun retailer in Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France. He must have procured a custom order from Lefaucheux of these guns to sell at his establishment.

All of the parts have part number “15 J” punched into them.

Based on the serial number and the frame design this would have been manufactured around August/September of 1861.

This is a double-action-only 7mm pinfire revolver made by Eugene Lefaucheux follows his patent from 07 June 1858.<br>On the barrel is inscribed 'DUMOULIN ARQer À ROUEN'7mm pinfire revolver made by Eugene Lefaucheux in Paris, France for DUMOULIN, an arquebusier and gun retailer in Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France.

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.58 Schubarth
July 10, 2015

I have finally acquired a .58 Schubarth! It is one of the more desirable American cartridges and seems to trade for insane prices. There are only around a dozen known to exist. It was patented and made in 1861 by Casper D. Schubarth who resided at 6 North Main street Providence, RI.

This particular example was once owned by Colonel Berkeley R. Lewis of the United States Army Ordnance Corps. He acquired it from the Smithsonian Institution.

schubarth

The whole idea of the cartridge and rifle is based on a modification and improvement of Gallager & Gladding’s cartridge and rifle that was created a couple years prior. I have new pictures of the Gallager & Gladding cartridge that I will feature in my Journal column (which is currently detailing the relationship of pinfire cartridges and the United States) sometime in the next few months. Schubarth’s improvement was essentially to make it waterproof.

It is an inside-primed pinfire. I believe his intentions were to make it easily reloadable with Minié balls and was offered to the government which did not decided to purchase it.

58schubarthThe dimensions of it are as follows:

Bullet Diameter: 0.61 inches
Bullet Weight: 551 grains
Powder Charge: 70 grains

Total Weight: 764 grains
Case Length: 1.13 inches
Total Length: 2 inches

While I do not have ballistic info on it, in 1861 Mr. Schubarth said that “It will be seen that the powder is fired in the middle of the charge thus causing a rapid combustion [and] that this causes so great force be generated that 60 grains of powder has driven bullet through 15 one inch boards at a distance one hundred yards ”

Also, here is the patent, and an image of it beside a .223 for scale.

US Patent: 23,895.58 Schubarth beside a .223Inside of .58 Schubarth owned by my friend, Gene SpicerScientific America image of .58 Schubarth.58 Schubarth owned by friend, Paul molansNotecard written by Berkeley R. Lewis from when he owned the cartridge. During this timeframe it was thought that this was a similar cartridge made by Gallager & Gladding. That is why he references G&G in the note.

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Collath Horizontal Pinfire Shotshells

Collath Horizontal Pinfire Shotshells

Wilhelm Collath invented a shotshell variation that had a small pin that rested in a percussion cap half an inch into the case. The wider centerfire hammer would hit the pin which knocked it into the cap to set it off. The reasoning was to make the ignition travel backwards first so that it would have a little more time to burn the powder before building up the pressure to propel the shot. This allowed for less burning powder to travel down the barrel.

He also came up with his own size numbering system. They roughly equate like this:
0 -> 10g
1 -> 12g
3 -> 14g
4 -> 16g
5 -> 18g
6 -> 20g
7 -> 24g
8 -> 28g

As shown in the picture, they were also, but not commonly, made in a couple of the regular English gauges.

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Nazi Pinfire cartridges during WWII
July 8, 2015

Gustloffwerke

In March of 1938, the “Anschluss” took control of the company, Hirtenberger Patronen Zunhutchen & Metallwarenfabrik A.-G. of Hirtenberg, Austria and incorporated it into the Wilhelm Gustloff Foundation, which was a group owned by the Nazi Party.

On April 29, 1939 The company was officially renamed (from Hirtenberger) to Gustloffwerke Hirtenberger.

During this timeframe they typically used the letter “G” as a manufacturer’s mark on the headstamps, but also continued using the “H” for cartridges only produced in small numbers rather than replacing the bunters.

By April 3, 1945 the plant was mostly devastated from the war and fell into the hands of the Soviets and was quickly put under control of the USIA (Administration of Soviet Property in Austria) and the company again renamed to Hirtenberger Patronen Zunhutchen & Metallwarenfabrik and eventually started production of cartridges again in 1946.

So from 1939 to 1944 The Nazi’s made pinfire cartridges in Austria.

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